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Overview of physician specialties

Specialists in allergy and immunology work with both adult and pediatric patients suffering from allergies and diseases of the respiratory tract or immune system. They may help patients suffering from common diseases such as asthma, food and drug allergies, immune deficiencies, and diseases of the lung. Specialists in allergy and immunology can pursue opportunities in research, education, or clinical practice.

Anesthesiology is the branch of medicine dedicated to pain relief for patients before,
during, and after surgery. We outlines the following subspecialties within the field in the following areas of care:

  • Critical care medicine
  • Hospice and palliative care
  • Pain medicine
  • Pediatric anesthesiology
  • Sleep medicine

Dermatologists are physicians who treat adult and pediatric patients with disorders of the skin, hair, nails, and adjacent mucous membranes. They diagnose everything from skin cancer, tumors, inflammatory diseases of the skin, and infectious diseases. They also perform skin biopsies and dermatological surgical procedures.

Subspecialties within the dermatology field include the following:

  • Dermatopathology
  • Pediatric dermatology
  • Procedural dermatology

Physicians specializing in diagnostic radiology are trained to diagnose illnesses in patients through the use of x-rays, radioactive substances, sound waves in ultrasounds, or the body’s natural magnetism in magnetic resonance images (MRIs).

They can also pursue a subspecialty in the following areas:

  • Abdominal radiology
  • Breast imaging
  • Cardiothoracic radiology
  • Cardiovascular radiology
  • Chest radiology
  • Emergency radiology
  • Endovascular surgical neuroradiology
  • Gastrointestinal radiology
  • Genitourinary radiology
  • Head and neck radiology
  • Interventional radiology
  • Musculoskeletal radiology
  • Neuroradiology
  • Nuclear radiology
  • Pediatric radiology
  • Radiation oncology
  • Vascular and interventional radiology

Emergency medicine
Physicians specializing in emergency medicine provide care for adult and pediatric patients in emergency situations. These specialists provide immediate decision making and action to save lives and prevent further injury. They help patients in the pre-hospital setting by directing emergency medical technicians and assisting patients once they arrive in the emergency department.

Emergency medicine is also home to several subspecialties, including the following:

  • Anesthesiology critical care medicine
  • Emergency medical services
  • Hospice and palliative medicine
  • Internal medicine / Critical care medicine
  • Medical toxicology
  • Pain medicine
  • Pediatric emergency medicine
  • Sports medicine
  • Undersea and hyperbaric medicine

While many medical specialties focus on a certain function of the body or particular organ, family medicine focuses on integrated care and treating the patient as a whole. Physicians who specialize in family medicine treat patients of all ages. They are extensively trained to provide comprehensive health care and treat most ailments.

There are family medicine subspecialties as well, including the following:

  • Adolescent medicine
  • Geriatric medicine
  • Hospice and palliative medicine
  • Pain medicine
  • Sleep medicine
  • Sports medicine